Include-Exclude Rules

Several Jodd tools and frameworks use set of include and exclude rules to filter some resources. For example, you can filter files with FindFile or filter properties for JsonSerializer. For all this, Jodd uses the very same include-exclude rule engine. The very same logic is applied everywhere. And the best part is that you can re-use it for your own need.

This small rule engine is implemented in InExRules class. This rule engine may work in one of the two following modes:

  • blacklist mode (default) - any input is included, and you specify what to exclude;
  • whitelist mode - any input is excluded, and you specify what to include.

The order of execution of explicit include/exclude rules depends on the mode.

The rules 'opposite' to the rule engine mode are always executed first! Corresponding rules of the same group (include or exclude) are executed as they are defined.

For example, if rule engine is in blacklist mode, engine first executes exclude rules and then include rules. When executing one of these groups, all corresponding rules are executed as defined. This way you can filter out any combination you need.

I am sure you are totally puzzled with above definitions:) Let's see rules in action, everything will be much clearer!


When created, rules engine can be fill up with the various include/exclude rules. For example, we can have something like this:

    InExRules inExRules = ... // we get the engine instance


What we set here are two rules: one for defining what will be included and one for what is going to be excluded. In this example, rules are simple strings, but this does not have to be the case, as we gonna see later.

After setting the rule, our engine is set and we can start matching input resources. In our trivial example, resources are again strings, so we can write something like:


But how input resources are matched to the rules?


Say hi to the InExRuleMatcher. This interface connects rules and input values (i.e. resources) and defines how single rule is matched against the input value. By default, Jodd provides two matchers: WILDCARD_RULE_MATCHER and WILDCARD_PATH_RULE_MATCHER, that uses our great wildcard matcher to compare string inputs against wildcard rules.

Rule engine from our example could be created like this:

    InExRules<String, String> inExRules =
            new InExRules<String, String>(

To recap, such rule engine takes string inputs that are matched against (wildcard) string rules. As you could expect, you can write a matcher for any types of inputs and rules, complex as much as you need! For example, you may have your own matching logic where you split rule on dots and then perform matching of each chunk and so on.

Order of execution

Now back to the order of execution. Above two rules are bit vague. In one rule, we said we want to include all pages, and then we are excluding one page. Which rule is applied first?

Look again what we said on the very beginning. The order of execution depends on current mode. So here is the logic behinds the rule engine in this case:

  • By default, engine is created in blacklist mode
  • Therefore, everything is included.
  • First check the opposite rules, the excluded group.
  • We have just one excludes rule (

If we stop now, then the rule engine would be set to include all book pages except the page 1. But we have more rules:

  • After checking the opposite group, go with the included group.
  • We have one includes rule (*).

We just overwrite the exclude rule! Meaning, we didn't excluded anything!

Changing the mode

Obviously, this is not what we wanted. We have to change the initial mode of the rule engine. If we write this:


then the rule engine logic goes like this

  • Engine is started in whitelist mode
  • Therefore, everything is excluded.
  • First check the opposite rules, the included group.
  • We have one includes rule (*).
  • After checking the opposite group, go with the excluded group.
  • We have just one excludes rule (

This time, rules are set like we wanted: the whole book is included except the page 1.

In Jodd

This logic is used everywhere in the Jodd where some inputs are filtered.

Be aware of the starting rule-engine mode!

It is very important to be aware how tools are using the engine. Very often tools uses blacklist mode as default, but if you specify only the includes rules, it will switch to the whitelist mode.

Again - be aware of how the engine mode.